Forest ecosystems are characterized by exceptionally high biological diversity.

Ecosystems of deciduous forests are characterized by a rich species diversity, but they are especially notable for the largest population density of animals. This is due to the high productivity of forests, the great species diversity of plants and the huge phytomass produced by them annually and utilized through a complex network of trophic relationships. The group of anymals which are leading a wood life, especially living in hollows of trees is exclusively various.

For deciduous trees, as well as for deciduous forests in general, seasonal differences in the animal population are most characteristic. In winter, such forests are less favorable for many animals and birds than evergreen conifers or mixed ones. In this regard, a much larger proportion of deciduous forest birds are migratory or migrate to other biotopes.

Of the rare and protected species for the deciduous forests bisons, the largest number of rare species of bats, dormouse, from birds - eagle owl, black stork, eagle-dwarf, cison, green and medium woodpeckers are characteristic.

The fauna of mixed deciduous-coniferous forests are the most rich, as it includes both representatives of the Northern taiga zone and the inhabitants of the nemoral European forests. In addition, the species richness of this group of forests in Belarus is also determined by their much larger area compared to broad-leaved forests. For most species of forest fauna, a very favorable combination of fodder and protective conditions is created here. These are the most preferred biotopes for the majority of large mammals – hoofed and predatory. To the composition of rare and protected species of broad-leaved forests, such species as the flying squirrel , brown bear, lynx are added here, and from the birds – the capercaillie and passerine owls, the valuable hunting species is the wood grouse, the small spotted eagle and the hobby are more often noted.

Ecosystems of coniferous (boreal) forests. Pine forests, mainly growing on poor and dry soils, have, as a rule, a much simpler tier structure and relatively poor fauna. Especially small is the composition of species leading the terrestrial way of life. The fauna of spruce forests, which possess the best protective properties for animals, is richer. High closeness of the stand and dense undergrowth of these forests, in addition, provide favorable microclimatic conditions during the wintering period, which attracts animals from other habitats.

In general, the share of rare and protected species of animals in the coniferous forests is significant, among them - the flying squirrel , the brown bear, the badger, the lynx, the birds are the serpentine, the hobby, merlin, boreal owl, the three-toed woodpecker, the great gray owl, which prefer arrays alternating with raised bogs and transitional marshes. Smooth snake and reed toad are found.

The fauna of the small-leaved derivative woods of various formations considerably differs with structure and number of types. The alder forests

are the richest, which reflects their high productivity as a whole. The age of small-leaved forests is one of the most important factors determining the species richness and number of animals, but there are few high-growth stands that have the most complete composition of faunal complexes.

The composition of rare and protected species in black alder stands is in many respects similar to that of broad-leaved forests. There are the same kinds of bats, а tree dormouse and a badger are found, from birds you can meet in some places the eagle owl, the small spotted eagle, the black stork, a caterpillar, in the river floodplains there is a white azure, a blue-throated robin, а penduline tit.

The fauna of the small-leaved woods on swamps is in many respects similar to fauna of the derivative small-leaved woods and reaches the greatest variety of types in old-age forest stands

A list of terrestrial vertebrate animals, inhabitants of the forest ecosystems on the territory of Belarus


1. Common hedgehog, Erinaceus europaeus

2. Common mole , Talpa europaea

3. Common shrew , Sorex araneus

4. Laxmann's shrew, Sorex caecutiens

5. Lesser shrew, Sorex minutus

6. Brown bat , Mythis myotis

7. Pond bat, Mythis dasicneme

8. Daubenton's bat, Myotis daubentoni

9. Natterer's bat, Mytis Nattereri

10. Whiskered bat, Mythis mystacinus

11. Long-eared bat, Plecotus auritus

12. Common (western) barbastelle, Barbastella barbastellus

13. Leisler's  bat, Nyctalus leisleri

14. Great bat, Nyctalus noctula

15. Fatio's bat, Nyctalus lasiopterus

16. Common bat , Vespertilio pipistrellus

17. Nathusius' pipistrelle, Vespertilio nathusii

18. Particolo(u)red bat, Vespertilio murinus

19. Wolf, Canis lupus

20. Common fox, Vulpes vulpes

21. Raccoon dog, Nyctereutes procyonoides

22. Bear brown, Ursus arctos

23. Common (North American) raccoon, Procyon lotor

24. Common (pine, sweet) marten , Martes martes

25. Weasel, Mustela nivalis

26. Common weasel, Mustail erminea

27. Forest polecat, Mustela putorius

28. Badger, Meles meles

29. Lynx, Felis linx

30. Squirrel common, Sciurus vulgaris

31. Flying squirrel, Pteromys volans

32. Red-backed mouse, Cletrionomys glareolus

33. Dark vole, Microtus agrestis

34. Ground vole, Microtus subterraneus

35. Root vole, Microtus oeconomus

36. Wood mouse, Apodemus silvaticus

37. Yellow-throated mouse, Apodemus flavicollis

38. Common dormouse, Glis glis

39. Hazel dormouse, Muscardinus avellanarius

40. Garden dormouse, Eliomis quercinus

41. Forest dormouse, Dryomis nitedula

42. Forest birch mouse , Sicista betulina

43. Hare-lamb, Lepus timidus

44. Wild boar, Sus scrofa

45. Roe, Capreolus capreolus

46. ​​Elk, Alces alces

47. Red deer, Cervus elaphus

47. The European bison, Bison bonasus


1. Black stork, Ciconia nigra

2. Honey buzzard, Pernis apivorus

3. Red kite, Milvus milvus

4. Black kite, Milvus migrans

5. Goshawk , Accipiter gentilis

6. Sparrowhawk, Accipiter nisus

7. Common buzzard, buzzard Buteo buteo

8. Short-toed eagle, Circaetus gallicus

9. Eagle-dwarf, Hieraaetus pennatus

10. Great spotted eagle, Aquila clanga

11. Small spotted eagle, Aquila pomarina

12. Golden eagle, Aquila chrysaetos

13. Peregrine falcon, Falco peregrinus

14. European hobby, Falco subbuteo

15. Pigeon hawk, Falco columbarius

16. Red-footed falcon, Falco vespertinus

17. Common kestrel, Falco tinnunculus

18. White partridge, Lagopus lagopus

19. Grouse, Lyrurus tetrix

20. Wood grouse, Tetrao urogallus

21. Hazel grouse, Tetrastes bonasia

22. Pheasant, Phasianus colchicus

23. Gray gull, Tringa ochropus

24. Woodcock, Scolopax rusticola

25. Vyakhir, Columba palumbus

26. Stock dove, Columba oenas

27. Turtledove, Streltopelia turtur

28. Common cuckoo, Cuculus canorus

29. Eurasian eagle, Bubo bubo

30. Long-eared owl, Asio otus

31. Scops-owl, Otus scops

32. Small owl, Aegolius funereus

33. Sparrow owl Glaucidium passerinum

34. Tawny owl, Strix aluco

35. Long-tailed owl, Strix uralensis

36. Bearded owl, Strix nebulosa

37. Eurasian nightjar, Caprimulgus europaeus

38. Roller, Coronas garrulus

39. Hoopoe, Upupa epops

40. Wryneck, Jynx torquilla

41. Green Woodpecker, Picus viridis

42. Gray-haired woodpecker, Picus canus

43. Black Woodpecker, Dryocopus martius

44. Spotted woodpecker, Dendrocopos major

45. Middle spotted woodpecker, Dendrocopos medius

46. ​​ White-backed Woodpecker, Dendrocopos leucotos

47. Creeper, Dendrocopos minor

48. Three-toed Woodpecker, Picoides tridactylus

49. Forest lark, Lullula arborea

50. Tree pipit, Anthus trivialis

51. Red-backed shrike, Lanius collurio

52. Lesser gray shrike, Lanius minor

53. Gray shrike ,Lanius excubitor

54. Golden oriole, Oriolus oriolus

55. Common starling Sturnus vulgaris

56. Jay, Garrulus glandarius

57. Common magpie, Pica pica

58. Eurasian nutcracker, Nucifraga caryocatactes

59. Raven, Corvus corax

60. Wren, Troglogytes troglodytes

61. Hedge sparrow, Prunella modularis

62. River warbler, Locustella fluviatilis

63. Grasshopper warbler, Locustella naevia

64. Garden Warbler Acrocephalus dumetorum

65. Swamp Warbler Acrocephalus palustris

66. Icterine warbler, Hippolais icterina

67. Barred warbler, Sylvia nisoria

68. Blackcap, Sylvia atricapilla

69. Garden Warbler, Sylvia borin

70. The Gray Warbler Sylvia communis

71. Lesser whitethroat, Sylvia curruca

72. Willow warbler, Phylloscopus trochilus

73. European chiffchaff, Phylloscopus collybita

74. Wood warbler, Phylloscopus sibilatrix

75. Greenish leaf warbler, Phylloscopus trochiloides

76. Gold-crested wren, Regulus regulus

77. Pied flycatcher, Ficedula albicollis

78. White-collared flycatcher Fishery albicollis

79. Red-breasted flycatcher, Ficedula parva

80. Spotted flycatcher Muscicapa striata

81. European redstart, Phoenicurus phoenicurus

82. Robin, Erithacus rubecula

83. Common nightingale, Luscinia luscinia

84. Blue-throated robin, Luscinia svecica

85. Fieldfare, turdus pilaris

86. Blackbird Turdus merula

87. Redwing, Turdus iliacus

88. Song thrush Turdus philomelos

89. Missel thrush, Turdus viscivorus

90. Long-tailed tit, Aegithalos caudatus

91. Marsh tit, Parus palustris

92. Willow tit, Parus montanus

93. Crested tit, Parus cristatus

94. Coal tit, Parus ater

95. Blue tit, Parus caeruleus

96. Azure tit, Parus cyanus

97. Great tit, Parus major

98. European nuthatch, Nuthatch Sitta europaea

99. Common treecreeper, Certhia familiaris

100. Finch, Fringilla coelebs

101. Brambling, Fringilla montifringilla

102. European greenfinch, Chloris chloris

103. Siskin, Spinus spinus

104. Linnet, Acanthis canabina

105. Scarlet grosbeak, Carpodacus erythrinus

106. Parrot crossbill pytyopsittacus clover

107. Crossbill, Loxia curvirostra

108. Common bullfinch, Pyrrhula pyrrhula

109. Grosbeak, Coccothraustes coccothraustes

110. Common bunting, Emberiza calandra

111. Yellow hammer, Emberiza citrinella

112. Ortolan, Emberiza hortulana


1. Blindworm, Anguis fragilis

2. Sand lizard, Lacerta agilis

3. Common northern viper, Vipera berus

4. Smooth snake, Coronella austriaca


1. Common toad, bufo bufo

2. Running toad, bufo calamita

3. Moor frog, Rana arvalis

4. Grass frog, Rana temporaria